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There are two standardised data exchange protocols defined in ISO/IEC 7816-3 for the communication between a Smart Card and a terminal: the byte-oriented half duplex transmission protocol T=0 and the block-oriented half duplex protocol T=1. The character-oriented T=0 protocol is very simple constructed and has a low memory capacity (about 300 Byte). The block-oriented T=1 protocol is a half-duplex protocol and works with error detection (EDC) at the end of block. The memory requirement is about 1.100 Byte.
This contactless transmission protocol is standardised by ISO/IEC 14443-4. T=CL is a complete protocol stack. CL stands for contactless. The name structure is derived from the ISO 7816 protocols T=0 and T=1.
TD-SCDMA (Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access) is an air interface found in UMTS mobile telecommunications networks in Asia as an alternative to W-CDMA. It was developed by the CATT (China Academy of Telecommunications Technology) in collaboration with Datang and Siemens to be accepted by the IT as one of the five IMT-2000 standards.