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The Java Card Runtime Environment is the Runtime Environment embedded in a Java Card. The following picture shows the architecture of the JCRE
Java Card Virtual Machine (JCVM) is the Java Virtual Machine embedded in a Java Card.
Micro-SIM cards are cards in the smallest available format following ETSI TS 102 221. The Micro-SIM, also known as Mini-UICC, is half the size of SIM cards today. With a format of 12mm x 15mm only, the Micro-SIM can be used in small mobile devices.
Micro-SIM Adapters (also called Mini-UICC Adapters) are mechanical adapters which are converting Micro-SIM-Cards into the format of normal plug-in SIM cards, so that the Mini-UICC card can be also used in devices designed for normal plug-in sizes
MIFARE, an acronym for Mikron Fare Collection System, was invented by NXP Semiconductors. It is the worldwide most used contactless communication protocol within the Smart Card business. Originally, this protocol was used for ticketing in public transportation.
Mini-UICCs are cards in the smallest available format following ETSI TS 102 221. The 3FF SIM card, also known as MicroSIM, is half the size of SIM cards today. With a format of 12mm x 15mm only, the 3FF card can be used in small mobile devices.
Near Field Communication (NFC) is the standard for short distance (up to 10 cm) contactless data exchange. The technology is a simple extension of the ISO/IEC 14443 proximity-card standard (contactless card, RFID) that combines the interface of a Smart Card and a reader into a single device. An NFC device can communicate with both existing ISO/IEC 14443 Smart Cards and readers, as well as with other NFC devices, and is thereby compatible with existing contactless infrastructure already in use for public transportation and payment. NFC is primarily aimed at usage in mobile phones. Newest inventions allow the customer to use their mobile phone, due to NFC, as virtual entrance card or to pay with it by holding it closely to a till.
NFC devices are able to communicate with Smart Cards, readers and other NFC devices. They can receive and send data simultaneously and therefore have the ability to check the received radio frequency field and detect a collision if the received response does not match with the expected signal. In the field of mobile phone technology where the NFC devices are used, three main modes are distinguished:
The Open Mobile Alliance was formed in 2002 by almost 200 leading companies of the mobile phone industry. Today OMA as more than 350 members. The intention of this merge is to develop international standardised, marketable and interoperable digital services for the mobile business.