Main Glossary


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2

2G

The 2nd Generation Mobile Telephone Technology was the successor to 1G technology, employed to handle the large number of calls, to avoid the risk of dropped calls at "handoffs and to improve quality of calls by using digital radio signals. Further characteristics of 2G are improved security with different levels of encryption and to convey some data like SMS. The most successful digital system for 2G is GSM.

3

3FF

3FF stands for 3rd form factor and describes the smallest available card form following ETSI TS 102 221. The 3FF SIM card, also known as Mini-UICC or Micro-SIM, is half the size of SIM cards today. With a format of 12mm x 15mm only, the 3FF card can be used in small mobile devices.

3G

The 3rd Generation Mobile Telephone Technology networks, successor of 2G networks technology, support much higher data transmission rates than 1G and 2G and offer increased capacity so that 3G mobile phones can offer subscribers a wide range of data services, such as mobile internet access and multimedia applications. There are two global and standardised 3G systems: CDMA2000, used mainly in Americas and Asia, and UMTS (W-CDMA, TD-CDMA, TD-SCDMA) used worldwide, mainly in Europe and China.

3GPP

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project was established in December 1998 to unite telecommunications standards bodies - as "Organisational Partners".
The members of 3GPP are the European Telecommunications Standards Institute, Association of Radio Industries and Businesses/Telecommunication Technology Committee (ARIB/TTC) (Japan), China Communications Standards Association, Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (North America) and Telecommunications Technology Association (South Korea).

3GPP2

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 is a parallel established Partnership Project to 3GPP. The collaboration works on a 3G telecommunication specifications setting project. The principal task is the standardisation and creation of technical specifications for CDMA2000 technologies.
Mainly involved are the Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB), the China Communications Standards Association (CCSA) and the US-American Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA).

4

4G

The 4th Generation Mobile Telephone Technology network is the successor of 3G and 2G cellular mobile standards. In addition to 2G and 3G, 4G provides an all IP-based solution, ultra-broadband internet access, gaming service as well as streamed multimedia and is expected to use the available radio spectrum more efficiently.

A

Anticollision Loop

The Anticollision Loop is an algorithm used to start the ISO/IEC 14443 dialogue between a PCD and a PICC out of the total number of PICCs responding to a request command.

APDU

The APDU (Application Protocol Data Unit) is the communication unit between a Smart Card and a Smart Card reader standardised by ISO/IEC 7816 on the application level. This interaction occurs after establishment of the communication via Answer to Reset (ATR) and optional Protocol Type Selection.

C

CAD

Card Acceptance Device is a smart card reader that allows to send command to a smart card.

Card Emolution Mode

The Card Emolution Mode is an NFC operating mode where the NFC device itself acts as an NFC tag, appearing to an external reader much the same as a traditional contactless Smart Card. This enables contactless payments and ticketing, where the UICC emulates a contactless card through the CLF.

CAT

CAT (Card Application Toolkit) consists of a set of commands defined for the communication between a card (R-UIM) and a handset with the goal to enable the card to initiate actions which can be used for various value-added services.

CCAT

CCAT is the acronym for CDMA Card Application Toolkit and consists of a set of commands defined for the communication between a card (R-UIM) and a handset with the goal to enable the card to initiate actions which can be used for various value-added services.

CDMA

CDMA is a form of multiplexing that allows several transmitters to send information simultaneously over one single communication channel (e.g.: wireless networks) instead of assigning a specific frequency to each user as it is usual for GSM systems. CDMA encodes individual conversations by random digital sequence. It offers a transmission speed of only up to 14.4 Kbps in its single channel form and up to 115 Kbps in an eight-channel form.

CDMA2000

Code Division Multiple Access 2000 is - next to UMTS - one of the 3rd generation mobile phone technologies that allow a higher data rate than GSM (for 2G) does. CDMA2000 is an upgraded version of CDMA which can support mobile data communications at speeds ranging from 144 Kbps to 2 Mbps.

Contactless Front-end

The Contactless Front-end (CLF) is the circuitry in the terminal which
- Handles the analogue part of the NFC communication
- Handles the communication protocol layers of the contactless transmission link
- Exchanges data with the UICC on the SWP interface


Contactless Smart Card

Contactless smart card is a smart card equipped with an antenna which reacts in presence of a electromagnetic field, in the radio-frequency spectrum, emitted by a special reading/writing device, allowing the microchip exchanging data with the outer world (whilst the antenna stays within a minimum distance from the reading/writing device.)

CSIM

CSIM (CDMA subscriber identify module) is the name of the application on a removable security module (UICC) located in CDMA2000 mobile terminals. In its functionality the CSIM is comparable to the SIM in GSM. It is equipped with the crypto algorithm CAVE which is used for a multiplicity of cryptographic protected functions inside CDMA.

E

EMV

EMV is an abbreviation of the three companies Europay International, MasterCard and VISA,
who developed the EMV standard. EMV is a norm for payment cards and for the correspondent acceptance devices (POS terminals and ATMs). The EMV norm is managing two main tasks: interoperability and flexibility. Interoperability means that the same cross-system and transnational card- and terminal utilisation known from the magnetic stripe technology is also given at the chip card technology. Flexibility means that furthermore every monetary transactions system must have the possibility to realise individual requirements beyond the interoperability.

EMVco

The EMVCo is a federation that manages and supports the Integrated Circuit Card Specification for EMV chip based payment cards and acceptance devices. It also controls whether the testing and approval processes meet the EMV specification. American Express, JCB, MasterCard and VISA are the current owners of EMVCo.

ETSI

The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) was founded in 1988 by CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations). It is a standardisation organisation in the telecommunications industry in Europe and produces international standardised technologies for the information and communication field including fixed, mobile, radio, broadcast, internet, aeronautical and other areas. ETSI is recognised as an official European Standards Organisation by the European Union, enabling valuable access to European markets.

F

FeliCa

FeliCa is an acronym for Felicity Card and was developed by Sony. It is a contactless communication protocol compatible with ISO/IEC 14443 and therefore operating within the proximity distance of 10 cm.

G

GCF

GCF (Global Certification Forum) is a pool of mobile phone manufacturers, mobile network operators and test-service providers. Their aim is to secure the function of mobile phones according to GSM and UMTS standards by accomplishing standardised tests and a subsequent certification of the mobile radio unit.

GSM

The Global System for Mobile communications is, with its digital signalling and speech channels, the most popular standard for 2nd generation mobile phone systems used in the world. GSM's availability enables international roaming arrangements between mobile phone operators, providing subscribers the use of their phones in many parts of the world.

H

HCI

The Host Controller Interface (HCI) is a logical interface, allowing a contactless front-end to communicate directly with an application processor, multiple secure elements and e.g. RF gates in diverse electronic devices such as mobile phones, PDAs and PC peripherals, allowing fast integration of NFC functionality.

HCP

HCP (Host Controller Protocol) is used to support the communication between the Contactless Front-end (CLF) of an NFC enabled mobile phone and a contactless application as it can be found on the SIM inserted into such a device.

I

IC-USB

InterChip USB (IC-USB) is intended as a low power variant of the standard physical USB 2.0 interface. IC-USB is being used primarily in mobile phones. The technology is standardised by ETSI in specification TS 102 600 as the official high speed interface for connections between the handset's main chipset and the UICC.

IMS

IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is used within the 3G mobile phone technologies and enables the convergence of voice, video, data and mobile network technology by an IP-based infrastructure, IMS is the way to offer internet services everywhere using cellular technology and fills the gap between cellular and internet technology.

ISIM

An IP Multimedia Services Identity Module contains parameters for identifying and authenticating the user to the IMS

ISO 14443

ISO/IEC 14443 is defining the proximity standard of contactless communication. For both types the underlying communication scheme is half duplex with a 106 kbit per second data rate in each direction. In both cases, data transmitted by the card is load modulated with a 847.5 kHz subcarrier. However, both differ in the physical layer and the initialisation procedure (anticollision and selection).

 


ISO 7816

ISO/IEC 7816 is the national standard for the "classic" contact based inter circuit cards (ICC) and specifies all electronic and mechanical characteristics of an ICC as well as its size, the arrangement and function of its contacts and its eventually existing magnetic stripes as well as the transmission protocols of data transmission between the chip card and terminal, its security devices and much more. The standard was developed by the ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) and the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission).


J

JCRE

The Java Card Runtime Environment is the Runtime Environment embedded in a Java Card. The following picture shows the architecture of the JCRE


JCVM

Java Card Virtual Machine (JCVM) is the Java Virtual Machine embedded in a Java Card.


L

LTE

The Long Term Evolution is supposed to be the next global and standardised mobile network system. LTE, although sometimes marked as 4G, does not fully comply with the IMT Advance 4G requirements and can only be seen as the change over to 4G technologies. LTE was designed to increase data speed and capacity of mobile telephone networks.

M

Micro-SIM

Micro-SIM cards are cards in the smallest available format following ETSI TS 102 221. The Micro-SIM, also known as Mini-UICC, is half the size of SIM cards today. With a format of 12mm x 15mm only, the Micro-SIM can be used in small mobile devices.


Micro-SIM Adapters

Micro-SIM Adapters (also called Mini-UICC Adapters) are mechanical adapters which are converting Micro-SIM-Cards into the format of normal plug-in SIM cards, so that the Mini-UICC card can be also used in devices designed for normal plug-in sizes


MIFARE

MIFARE, an acronym for Mikron Fare Collection System, was invented by NXP Semiconductors. It is the worldwide most used contactless communication protocol within the Smart Card business. Originally, this protocol was used for ticketing in public transportation.
MIFARE is compatible with ISO/IEC 14443 and therefore operating within the proximity distance of 10 cm.


Mini-UICC

Mini-UICCs are cards in the smallest available format following ETSI TS 102 221. The 3FF SIM card, also known as MicroSIM, is half the size of SIM cards today. With a format of 12mm x 15mm only, the 3FF card can be used in small mobile devices.


N

NFC

Near Field Communication (NFC) is the standard for short distance (up to 10 cm) contactless data exchange. The technology is a simple extension of the ISO/IEC 14443 proximity-card standard (contactless card, RFID) that combines the interface of a Smart Card and a reader into a single device. An NFC device can communicate with both existing ISO/IEC 14443 Smart Cards and readers, as well as with other NFC devices, and is thereby compatible with existing contactless infrastructure already in use for public transportation and payment. NFC is primarily aimed at usage in mobile phones. Newest inventions allow the customer to use their mobile phone, due to NFC, as virtual entrance card or to pay with it by holding it closely to a till.


NFC Device

NFC devices are able to communicate with Smart Cards, readers and other NFC devices. They can receive and send data simultaneously and therefore have the ability to check the received radio frequency field and detect a collision if the received response does not match with the expected signal. In the field of mobile phone technology where the NFC devices are used, three main modes are distinguished:
- Card emulation mode where the NFC device acts like a contactless card
- Reader mode where the NFC device is active and reads a passive RFID tag
- Peer-to-peer mode where two NFC devices are interacting and exchanging data

O

OMA

The Open Mobile Alliance was formed in 2002 by almost 200 leading companies of the mobile phone industry. Today OMA as more than 350 members. The intention of this merge is to develop international standardised, marketable and interoperable digital services for the mobile business.


OMH

OMH (Open Market Handsets) is an initiative within CDMA networks, that assures that the possibility of changing the handset or the operator is given at any time. Led by the CDMA Development Group (CDG), the OMH allows the purchase and use of an OMH device for any OMH-conform operator network. All operator and subscriber data have to be stored in the R-UIM or UICC card instead of writing it in the device. Furthermore, OMH offers device manufacturers the opportunity to sell their full-featured devices across the entire CDMA ecosystem of OMH-enabled operators instead of only selling them to one operator.


P

PCD

PCD (Proximity Coupling Device) is the generic term for readers within ISO/IEC 14443. The PCD is emitting an electromagnetic field and able to model all requests on the carrier frequency. All communication is initiated by the PCD and its range is about 10cm (proximity).

PICC

A Proximity Integrated Circuit Card (PICC) is a contactless Smart Card that is able to operate within a radius of approximately 10 cm of the card reader. As a passive card, it purchases power from the card reader device.

R

R-UIM

A Removable User Identification Module (R-UIM) is a removable ID chip for mobile phones made for the CDMA system. In the beginning of CDMA, there was no need for a Smart Card because all subscriber relevant information was stored in the handset itself. The R-UIM card holds a user's personal information such as name and account/ID number, mobile phone number, phone book, text messages and further settings. It is the corresponding item to the (U)SIM card used within GSM or W-CDMA networks.


RFID

RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification) is a technology to identify objects or persons using electromagnetic radiation. The RFID-system mostly consists of two parts: there is a transponder with a unique code on one side and on the other side a reading device. This device evaluates and saves the received code information so that the object/person carrying the transponder can be identified.

S

SAT

SIM Application Toolkit (SAT) consists of a set of commands defined for the communication between a card and a handset with the goal to enable the (U)SIM to initiate actions which can be used for various value-added services. This enables the SIM to build up an interactive exchange between a network application and the end user.


SCWS

The Smart Card Web Server is one of the newest developments within telecommunication technologies and offers a Smart Card based mobile internet access. It is enabled by an USIM which is capable of supporting standard web technologies like HTML pages and HTTP.

SIM

Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) is an application on a chip card used mainly for authentication purposes based on secret numbers as IMSI and Ki and special algorithms to enable the identification of a mobile phone user within the GSM-network. The access/use is protected by a PIN.

As the SIM is the dominating application on this types of Smart Cards, the card (hardware) itself is often named SIM too.

Smart Card

A smart card, a chip card or integrated circuit card (ICC) is the general term for a card which contains one or more semiconductor chips. A chip card may be in the form of a memory card or a microprocessor card.


Smart Card Reader

A smart card reader is a device plugged to a computer that allows to send commands to a smart card.

SWP

The Single Wire Protocol (SWP, ETSI TS 102 613) is used as direct interface between the mobile phone's Contactless Front-end (CLF) and the mobile phone's (U)SIM card.

T

T=0

There are two standardised data exchange protocols defined in ISO/IEC 7816-3 for the communication between a Smart Card and a terminal: the byte-oriented half duplex transmission protocol T=0 and the block-oriented half duplex protocol T=1. The character-oriented T=0 protocol is very simple constructed and has a low memory capacity (about 300 Byte). The block-oriented T=1 protocol is a half-duplex protocol and works with error detection (EDC) at the end of block. The memory requirement is about 1.100 Byte.
The Smart Card and the terminal exchange data with the help of these protocols.

T=1

There are two standardised data exchange protocols defined in ISO/IEC 7816-3 for the communication between a Smart Card and a terminal: the byte-oriented half duplex transmission protocol T=0 and the block-oriented half duplex protocol T=1. The character-oriented T=0 protocol is very simple constructed and has a low memory capacity (about 300 Byte). The block-oriented T=1 protocol is a half-duplex protocol and works with error detection (EDC) at the end of block. The memory requirement is about 1.100 Byte.
The Smart Card and the terminal exchange data with the help of these protocols.

T=CL

This contactless transmission protocol is standardised by ISO/IEC 14443-4. T=CL is a complete protocol stack. CL stands for contactless. The name structure is derived from the ISO 7816 protocols T=0 and T=1.

TD-SCDMA

TD-SCDMA (Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access) is an air interface found in UMTS mobile telecommunications networks in Asia as an alternative to W-CDMA. It was developed by the CATT (China Academy of Telecommunications Technology) in collaboration with Datang and Siemens to be accepted by the IT as one of the five IMT-2000 standards.
TD-SCDMA is an option for those operators who want to move from a 2G to a 3G network. Besides data transmission at speeds up to 2 Mbps, it supports circuit-switched data, such as speech and video and packet-switched data from the internet.


U

UICC

Universal Integrated Circuit Card is a Smart Card used in mobile terminals to ensure the integrity and security of the subscriber's personal data. Several application (SIM, USIM, CSIM ...) make it possible to give access to several networks with the same card.

UMTS

The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System is one of the 3rd generation mobile phone technologies that allow a higher data rate than GSM does. Originally UMTS was standardised by ETSI but today it is supported by 3GPP.
UMTS uses usually W-CDMA as the the underlying air interface. The offered high data rate enables a connection to the World Wide Web as well as videoconferencing, chat, downloading music and video files, watch TV, navigation and further services.

USAT

The UMTS SIM Application Toolkit (USAT) is based on SAT but is enhanced for the features provided by the UMTS technology. It enables the USIM to drive the UMTS handset and enables an interactive exchange between a network application and the user. The USAT function is located on the USIM card.

USIM

A Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) stores subscriber information, UMTS authentication information and provides storage space for text messages and phone book contacts.

W

WCDMA

The Wideband CDMA (W-CDMA) is a mobile phone system for 3G that uses a frequency channel of 5MHz which allows an increasing data transmission rate. All users operate over the same channel using the CDMA multiplexing technique



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