Sunday, 26 March 2023, 12:12 PM
Site: Ugo Chirico's e-learning
Course: Ugo Chirico's e-learning (Ugo Chirico's e-learning platform)
Glossary: Main Glossary


The 2nd Generation Mobile Telephone Technology was the successor to 1G technology, employed to handle the large number of calls, to avoid the risk of dropped calls at "handoffs and to improve quality of calls by using digital radio signals. Further characteristics of 2G are improved security with different levels of encryption and to convey some data like SMS. The most successful digital system for 2G is GSM.



3FF stands for 3rd form factor and describes the smallest available card form following ETSI TS 102 221. The 3FF SIM card, also known as Mini-UICC or Micro-SIM, is half the size of SIM cards today. With a format of 12mm x 15mm only, the 3FF card can be used in small mobile devices.


The 3rd Generation Mobile Telephone Technology networks, successor of 2G networks technology, support much higher data transmission rates than 1G and 2G and offer increased capacity so that 3G mobile phones can offer subscribers a wide range of data services, such as mobile internet access and multimedia applications. There are two global and standardised 3G systems: CDMA2000, used mainly in Americas and Asia, and UMTS (W-CDMA, TD-CDMA, TD-SCDMA) used worldwide, mainly in Europe and China.


The 3rd Generation Partnership Project was established in December 1998 to unite telecommunications standards bodies - as "Organisational Partners".
The members of 3GPP are the European Telecommunications Standards Institute, Association of Radio Industries and Businesses/Telecommunication Technology Committee (ARIB/TTC) (Japan), China Communications Standards Association, Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (North America) and Telecommunications Technology Association (South Korea).


The 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 is a parallel established Partnership Project to 3GPP. The collaboration works on a 3G telecommunication specifications setting project. The principal task is the standardisation and creation of technical specifications for CDMA2000 technologies.
Mainly involved are the Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB), the China Communications Standards Association (CCSA) and the US-American Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA).



The 4th Generation Mobile Telephone Technology network is the successor of 3G and 2G cellular mobile standards. In addition to 2G and 3G, 4G provides an all IP-based solution, ultra-broadband internet access, gaming service as well as streamed multimedia and is expected to use the available radio spectrum more efficiently.


Anticollision Loop

The Anticollision Loop is an algorithm used to start the ISO/IEC 14443 dialogue between a PCD and a PICC out of the total number of PICCs responding to a request command.


The APDU (Application Protocol Data Unit) is the communication unit between a Smart Card and a Smart Card reader standardised by ISO/IEC 7816 on the application level. This interaction occurs after establishment of the communication via Answer to Reset (ATR) and optional Protocol Type Selection.



Card Acceptance Device is a smart card reader that allows to send command to a smart card.

Card Emolution Mode

The Card Emolution Mode is an NFC operating mode where the NFC device itself acts as an NFC tag, appearing to an external reader much the same as a traditional contactless Smart Card. This enables contactless payments and ticketing, where the UICC emulates a contactless card through the CLF.